By Cynthia Bain
In veterinary medicine, controlled substances play a crucial role in treating animals and managing their pain. However, due to their potential for misuse and abuse, it is imperative for veterinary professionals to adhere to strict guidelines and legal regulations when handling and tracking controlled substances. This blog will outline essential best practices for prescription management, storage, dispensing, record keeping, and disposal, while highlighting the importance of complying with scheduled drug categories and addressing issues such as theft and drug diversion.
Prescription Misuse: One of the primary concerns when it comes to controlled substances in veterinary medicine is prescription misuse. Veterinarians must only prescribe controlled substances when necessary and for legitimate medical purposes. Overprescribing or prescribing these substances without proper diagnosis and monitoring can lead to misuse, abuse, and adverse effects on animals.
Scheduled Drug Categories and Examples: Controlled substances are categorized into different schedules based on their potential for abuse and medical use. Veterinary medicine often deals with Schedule II, III, IV, and V drugs. Examples of commonly used controlled substances include opioids (e.g., morphine, fentanyl), sedatives (e.g., diazepam, midazolam), and stimulants (e.g., amphetamines).
Storing, Dispensing, and Record Keeping: Proper storage, dispensing, and record keeping are essential components of controlled substance management. Controlled substances should be securely stored in locked cabinets to prevent unauthorized access. When dispensing, veterinarians should follow precise
dosing instructions and clearly label medications. Detailed records (controlled drug logbook) must be maintained, including the date, patient information, drug name, dosage, prescribing veterinarian’s information, and the purpose of the prescription. Some veterinary practice management software can be helpful in controlled substance record keeping.
Disposal, Theft, and Loss: Disposing of expired or unused controlled substances is a critical aspect of preventing diversion and environmental contamination. Veterinary clinics should establish clear disposal protocols, following federal and state regulations. In the unfortunate event of theft or loss, prompt reporting to law enforcement and regulatory agencies is necessary to prevent further misuse and potential legal consequences.
Drug Diversion: Drug diversion occurs when controlled substances are illicitly redirected from legitimate channels to the black market. Veterinary professionals must be vigilant in preventing drug diversion within their practices. Implementing internal controls, such as routine audits, inventory checks, and mandatory reporting of discrepancies, can help identify and address potential issues early.
The responsible handling and tracking of controlled substances in veterinary medicine requires a combination of adherence to legal requirements and best practices. Veterinary professionals must prioritize patient well-being while also preventing misuse, abuse, theft, and drug diversion. By maintaining accurate records, securely storing medications, and adhering to proper disposal procedures, veterinarians can contribute to the safe and ethical use of controlled substances in the field. Through ongoing education and awareness, the veterinary community can collectively work towards ensuring the welfare of animals while upholding the highest standards of care and compliance.